Ceramic and composite veneers
Veneers are thin shells of either ceramic or composite that are permanently attached to the front of teeth giving them a completely natural look and a dazzling smile. Dental veneers are placed due to number of reasons including changes in shape and position of the teeth, closure of the diastema and interdental space, loss of tooth enamel caused by abrasion or erosion, restoration of tooth shade, etc. The main advantage of veneers is that they offer satisfactory esthetical results which can be achieved through minimal removal of teeth substance from their frontal surface. Getting composite veneers usually requires only one visit to the dentist while the ceramic veneers involves at least two visits because the part of their making process is performed in a dental laboratory.
Metal ceramic crowns (porcelain fused to metal crowns)
Metal ceramic crowns are made of metal base covered with ceramics that matches the shade or color of patient’s teeth. The crowns are permanently bonded to the tooth using dental cement. They are very suitable in terms of durability and esthetic. The most common indication for their making is shortage of tooth substance that cannot be conservative restored by composite fillings.
Porcelain Crown (Non-Metal Dental Crowns)
The development in modern dentistry allows complete work of fixed restoration to be done using ceramic materials. Non-metal crowns are made of it. The main advantage of non-metal crowns compared to metal-ceramic is their high biocompatibility and excellent esthetic performance. They provide natural outlook of teeth. In addition, they do not have a metal base so there is no possibility of gingival margins.
Dentures and partial dentures
Complete dentures are removable prosthetic devices constructed to replace all missing teeth in a single or both dental arches. Besides being a replacement for missing teeth, the complete dentures also compensate a part of the bone tissue lost due to the absorption process which occurs after tooth extraction or its loss.
Represent a mechanical replacement of the lost tissue and rehabilitate the basic functions of the orofacial system, such as chewing, swallowing, speaking and expression of the face. Partial dentures are removable prosthetic devices constructed to replace some of missing teeth on a particular dental arch and when the position of toothless area is such that a complete rehabilitation of orofacial system cannot be restored by fixed dentures. There are several types of partial dentures that can be combined with fixed restorations. Depending on the situation in a patient's oral cavity a dentist suggests the best solution for correcting irregularities.
Oral Surgical procedures
In our dental surgery following oral-surgical interventions are used: - Extraction of the tooth, - Conservative or surgical treatments of oroantral communications (closing sinus), - Surgical extraction of impacted or half impacted wisdom tooth, - Elimination of pathological processes above the top of tooth roots, - Implantation procedure, in the case of missing bone tissue andon of bone anomaly and soft tissues in the frame of preparation of patient, - Adding artificial bones and lifting-surgery the maxillary sinus (sinus lift).
Dental implants are purposely designed components that are nowadays used as the best solution for the lack of one or more teeth. They are embedded in the bone tissue of the upper or the lower jawbone at the position of the missing tooth, replacing the root. Dental implants are made from titanium or titanium alloys, a fully biocompatible material that does not contain substances with toxic, allergenic and carcinogenic potential. Dental implant placement is performed under local anesthesia. This procedure is quick and takes approximately 15 minutes per implant. Before the implantation procedure it is necessary to do an analysis of X-rays image, for the purpose of determining bone level, vicinity of surrounding anatomical structures as well as to treat any infection that may be present in oral cavity such as gingivitis, parodontopathy and dental caries. In the post implantation period occurs an osseointegration, a process that involves the formation of a new bone around the implant placed. The osseointegration period is 1-3 months. After this period, implants are covered with superstructures (an abutment, the replacement for parts which support dental restoration), after which a prosthetic work is done, a crown or a bridge, depending on the option for which the patient has opted for.
Orthodontic treatment – fixed and mobile appliances
Orthodontic treatment involves correction of teeth and jaw alignment using removable or fixed orthodontic appliances. In addition to esthetic results, correction of orthodontic anomalies provides for optimal chewing function and favorable conditions for oral hygiene maintenance, which consequently reduce the possibility for dental caries formation and parodontopathy. With the use of mobile and fixed appliances, there are visible esthetic results: position of teeth and dental array, harmonious facial appearance and a beautiful smile. Orthodontic treatment can be applied with patients with fixed dentures, prior to its setting. This treatment is done primarily with the aim of aligning the teeth in an optimal position so to improve stability and ability of accepting additional loads once fixed appliances are positioned. When applying the orthodontic treatment, the first visit to the dentist includes consultations with a doctor, a detailed clinical examination of the teeth and oral cavity and the preparation of anatomic impression of upper and lower jaw teeth. Based on the impressions study models are developed, according to them a dentist, after the analysis of the models and dental radiography (x-rays) images, suggests particular orthodontic treatment. Most commonly this type of treatment takes between 1 - 3 years to complete, with regular monthly checkups of the condition and progress in a dental office.
Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease that leads to the destruction of the dental hard tissue and formation of cavity in a tooth. As there is no possibility of natural regeneration of hard tissue, it is necessary to use adequate dental materials for their restoration. Today, composites are used as restorative materials in dental crown making. They are dental materials of good physical and mechanical characteristics and their aesthetic features allow restoration of a shade like natural teeth.
Root canal treatment
Untreated extensive caries lesions or traumatic damage to the teeth may cause irreversible changes to the dental pulp. With these changes, pain and spontaneous painful experience may manifest thermal irritation of teeth. These cases require endodontic treatment, i.e. root canal treatment. Endodontic treatment involves a treatment of a tooth with infected pulp or infected tissue around the top of the root canal. The treatment includes the removal of disease affected pulp from the root canal, the shaping and cleaning of the root canal system using adequate instruments and medications and application of materials for root canal filling. The main purpose of the endodontic treatment is the preservation of the infected tooth or at least its root to restore the physiological functions of the tooth by using appropriate conservative or prosthetic restoration.
Ceramic filings (inlays and onlay)
Beside classic veneer the treatment of teeth after removing of carries is possible by inlays and onlays that can be made of ceramic. After preparation of teeth imprint would be taken and sent to dental laboratory.According to it following the right steps inlay would be made. In the next phase inlay would cemented in the mouth of a patient. It is considered that ceramic inlays and onlays are precisely and aesthetic better than classic tooth filings.
Disease of the periodontium and dental caries are the most spreading oral diseases. Their prevention is possible by maintaining of oral hygiene what means regular teeth cleaning using the proper technique after every meal (or at least in the morning and afternoon), using the tooth thread and interdental brushes and also liquids for tooth rinsing. Regular removal of tartar and soft tooth layers should be done every 6 months, also regular checkups by the dentists.